The UN has slapped sanctions on six alleged human traffickers in Libya, including a regional commander in the country’s EU-trained coastguard.
The Security Council imposed travel bans and asset freezes on two Eritreans and four Libyans in response to a Dutch proposal, in a sign of European concerns about abuses of migrants and the flow of refugees along the central Mediterranean route to Italy. It is the first time the UN has used sanctions against human traffickers.
The most prominent target is Abd al-Rahman al-Milad, head of a regional coastguard unit that a UN panel of experts says has been “directly involved in the sinking of migrant boats using firearms”. The EU said it had not trained Mr Milad, a former militia leader in the 2011 uprising that toppled Muammer Gaddafi, the late dictator. It did not provide information on whether it had trained other personnel in his unit.
Izza Leghtas, senior advocate for Europe for Refugees International, said the UN move highlighted broader questions over European support for anti-migration efforts in Libya, where abuses are rife in detention centres holding people taken off boats intercepted by coastguards.
“The people who were abused by [Mr Milad] are the very kind of people Europe is trying to stop reaching its shores,” said Ms Leghtas. “The overt imperative of preventing people arriving in Europe at any cost has to stop.”
The EU said the more than 200 Libyan coastguards it trained had gone through a “thorough and robust vetting procedure”. It added that it had been working “tirelessly” on fighting people-trafficking and smuggling networks.
But the Security Council’s Libya sanctions committee said Mr Milad’s coastguard division was “consistently linked with violence against migrants”. Several witnesses in criminal investigations have stated they were picked up by armed men on a coastguard ship used by Mr Milad and taken to a detention centre where they were held in brutal conditions and subjected to beatings, the committee said.
The UN list also includes two alleged militia leaders in Zawiya, a city west of Tripoli where Mr Milad is coastguard commander. The fourth Libyan is Mus’ab Abu-Qarin, who is accused of organising sea crossings for more than 45,000 people in 2015 alone. Mr Qarin allegedly organised a journey in April 2015 that ended in a shipwreck in the Sicilian channel, killing 800 people, the sanctions committee said.
One of the Eritreans, Ermias Ghermay, is the subject of Italian arrest warrants issued in 2015 in relation to the alleged smuggling of thousands of migrants under inhumane circumstances. Those voyages include an October 2013 shipwreck near the island of Lampedusa in which 266 people died.
Libya is split between two rival governments based in the east and west, and control in many parts lies in the hands of local militias. Some of the armed factions have turned to people smuggling as a lucrative business, exploiting proximity to Europe and the lack of effective authority.
In some areas, militias act as the self-styled coast guard, intercepting boats and detaining migrants, often subjecting them to torture and extortion.
In December, the African Union said that between 400,000 and 700,000 migrants were thought to be in at least 40 detention centres across Libya. Last year, Amnesty International accused Libya’s coast guard of “violent and reckless” conduct during interceptions. It cited an incident in which some 50 people drowned after the coast guard intervened during a rescue attempt by a ship operated by a non-governmental agency called Sea-Watch.
In May, more than a hundred migrants, who had been kidnapped and held captive by human traffickers near the western town of Beni Walid, managed to escape. However, they shot at by their captors and at least 15 were said to have been killed.
Survivors, mostly teenagers from Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia, told Medecins Sans Frontieres, the French charity, that some of them had been held for up to three years.
This piece originally appeared here.